Model Compression and MUNGE

2 minute read

In this post, I will summarize the paper titled Model Compression [1], and implement the synthetic data generation algorithm described in it.

We know that ensembles perform well, but their computational cost is too high. This paper proposes compressing an ensemble into a lightweight model by labeling an unlabeled dataset with the ensemble, and training the lightweight model on the newly labeled dataset. By doing that, the lightweight model mimics the knowledge of the ensemble. Also, the lightweight model trained on the newly labeled dataset outperforms the lightweight model trained on the original dataset. This result suggests that we are able to transfer the knowledge in the ensemble to the lightweight model.

If there is no unlabeled data to label with the ensemble, one can choose to generate synthetic data. However, care needs to be taken, because synthetic data should match the distribution of the original data. The authors propose MUNGE, an algorithm for data generation. I could not find a Python implementation and implemented it myself.

def findNearestNeighbor( elementIndex, array):
    elementIndex: the element that we are searching the nearest neighbor of
    array: array
    nearestNeighborIndex: the index of the nearestNeighbor
    element = array[elementIndex]
    array = np.delete( array, elementIndex, axis=0) # prevent elementIndex == nearestNeighborIndex
    nearestNeighborIndex = np.argmin( np.linalg.norm( element - array, axis=1))
    if nearestNeighborIndex >= elementIndex: # adjust
        nearestNeighborIndex += 1
    return nearestNeighborIndex

def munge( dataset, sizeMultiplier, swapProb, varParam):
    This algorithm was presented in the following paper:
    C. Bucilua, R. Caruana, and A. Niculescu-Mizil. Model compression. In Proceedings of the
    12th ACMSIGKDD International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining, KDD
    ’06, pages 535–541, New York, NY, USA, 2006. ACM.
    Creates a synthetic dataset.
    Continuous attributes should be linearly scaled to [0, 1].
    For now, assumes all attributes are continuous and the dataset is 2D. #TODO
    dataset: (numExamples, numAttributes)
    sizeMultiplier: dataset size multiplier
    swapProb: probability of swapping attributes (draw from normal with mean)
    varParam: local variance parameter
    synthetic: (sizeMultiplier*numExamples, numAttributes)
    numExamples, numAttributes = dataset.shape
    synthetic = np.empty((sizeMultiplier*numExamples, numAttributes))
    for i in range( sizeMultiplier):
        tempDataset = np.copy(dataset)
        for exampleIndex in range( numExamples):
            nearestNeighborIndex = findNearestNeighbor( exampleIndex, tempDataset)
            for j in range( numAttributes):
                if np.random.uniform() < swapProb:
                    example_attr = tempDataset[ exampleIndex, j]
                    closestNeighbor_attr = tempDataset[ nearestNeighborIndex, j]
                    tempDataset[ exampleIndex, j] = np.random.normal( closestNeighbor_attr, abs( example_attr - closestNeighbor_attr) / varParam)
                    tempDataset[ nearestNeighborIndex, j] = np.random.normal( example_attr, abs( example_attr - closestNeighbor_attr) / varParam)
        synthetic[i*numExamples:(i+1)*numExamples, :] = tempDataset
    return synthetic

For each example e in the dataset, we find its nearest neighbor e'. Then, with probability swapProb, each attribute e_a is assigned a random value drawn from normal distribution with mean e_a' and standard deviation |e_a - e_a'|/varParam, and vice versa (e_a' is assigned a random value from normal with mean e_a). An experiment with the sklearn Wine Recognition Dataset can be seen below.

Original Data

Synthetic Data

It is important to note that the synthetic data is very sensitive to swapProb and varParam. Although MUNGE is simple, variational autoencoders or GANs (GANs are the state-of-the-art at the moment) should be used for data generation.

The source code of the experiment can be found here.


[1] C. Bucilua, R. Caruana, and A. Niculescu-Mizil. Model compression. In Proceedings of the 12th ACMSIGKDD International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining, KDD’06, pages 535–541, New York, NY, USA, 2006. ACM.